|Year : 2008 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 121-125
Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in swiss albino mice brain
Dnyaneshwar Umrao Bawankule, Anirban Pal, Satyaprakash Gupta, Sachidanand Yadav, Amita Misra, Shubhra Rastogi, Ajit Kumar Shasany, Suman PS Khanuja, Mahendra P Darokar
Division of Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Kukrail Picnic Spot Road, P.O.CIMAP, Lucknow-15, India
|Date of Submission||17-Sep-2007|
|Date of Acceptance||22-Oct-2007|
|Date of Web Publication||5-Jun-2010|
Division of Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Kukrail Picnic Spot Road, P.O.CIMAP, Lucknow-15
| Abstract|| |
Chronic ethanol consumption is a medical problem with important socio-economic repercussions worldwide. Its chronic consumption enhances the oxidative damage to neurons and resulting in cell death. In this study we evaluated the protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice brain. Mice were divided into groups comprising of vehicle control, ethanol control, Ocimum sanctum water extract (OSWE) treatment at three doses, quercetin as a reference drug control and the treatment was given orally for 30 days. Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant related enzymes were estimated from brain homogenate. OSWE was found to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and enhance the superoxide dismutase in dose dependent manner.
Keywords: Ethanol, Ocimum sanctum, oxidative stress, mice
|How to cite this article:|
Bawankule DU, Pal A, Gupta S, Yadav S, Misra A, Rastogi S, Shasany AK, Khanuja SP, Darokar MP. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in swiss albino mice brain. Toxicol Int 2008;15:121-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Bawankule DU, Pal A, Gupta S, Yadav S, Misra A, Rastogi S, Shasany AK, Khanuja SP, Darokar MP. Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in swiss albino mice brain. Toxicol Int [serial online] 2008 [cited 2013 May 24];15:121-5. Available from: http://www.toxicologyinternational.com/text.asp?2008/15/2/121/63176
| Introduction|| |
Ethanol is the most psychoactive substance and chronic ethanol consumption is a medical problem with important socio-economic repercussions worldwide (Sandhir and Gill, 1999). Besides liver damage, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with several degenerative and inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS) including enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in brain through a number of pathways such as increased generation of hydroxyethyl radicals (Perez-Campo et al. 1998; Rezvani et al., 2003), induction of CYP2E1, alteration of the cytokine signaling pathways for induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and, phospholipase A2 and production of prostanoids through the cyclo-oxygenase pathways (Suna and Snub, 2001). The brain is deficient in oxidative defense mechanisms and hence is at great risk of damage mediated by ROS resulting in molecular and cellular dysfunction. Therefore, it is possible that oxidative changes exerted by chronic and excessive ethanol consumption may exacerbate the progression of neurodegenerative disorders (Kumral et al., 2005). It is widely accepted that alcoholism is a complex heterogeneous disorder that involves multiple mechanisms that can damage the brain. Various finding indicate that chronic ethanol consumption leads to direct or indirect changes in the viability of central nervous system cells via oxidative stress.
Ocimum sanctum (family Labiatae), the Indian holy basil, commonly known as sacred Tulsi, is a fragrant bushy plant found in semi tropical and tropical parts of India. Different parts of the plant are traditionally used in the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of medicine for treating infections, skin diseases, hepatic disorders, cold, cough, malarial fever and as an antidote for snake bite (Satyvathi and Gupta, 1987). Various studies on Ocimum sanctum have shown protection against radiation induced lipid peroxidation with increased levels of cellular antioxidants (Uma Devi and Ganasoundari, 1999), immunotherapeutic potential in bovine subclinical mastitis (Mukherjee et al., 2005), cardioprotective effect (Sood et al., 2006) and also inhibition of noise induced neurotransmitter levels (Samson et al., 2006). Traditionally different plants are used for treatment for ethanol related disorders. Ocimum being the sacred plants of India and being described to cure almost all the aliments in this investigation we carried out the experiments to measure the ethanol induced oxidative stress in brain when pretreated with Ocimum sanctum water extract (OSWE) for scientific validation.
| Material and Methods|| |
Fresh Leaves of Ocimum sanctum were collected early in the morning from Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP) research field, Lucknow (India) and voucher specimen of plant material was deposited at the institute's herbarium. The leaves were washed, dried in the shade and ground to a fine powder (# 60 mesh) using a laboratory mixer. One hundred grams of leaf powder was refluxed with 750ml of double distilled water for one hour at 40°C and concentrated using rotavapour (Buchi, USA). The extract was kept in -20°C until used for experiment.
Inbred Swiss albino female mice weighing 1825 gm obtained from 'Jeevanika', (Animal house of CIMAP), Lucknow were used for the ethanol induced oxidative stress study. The animals were maintained at 22±3°C with 50-70% relative humidity and 12:12 hrs of light and dark cycles. The animals were fed with pellet diet procured from M/ S Dayal industries, Lucknow, India, containing 2224% protein, 4-5%fat, 4-5%crude fiber, nitrogen free extracts 45-55%, Bengal gram 15%, phosphorus 0.4-0.6%, calcium 1-1.5%, insoluble ash 8% and soaked Bengal grams and water ad libitum. Animals were divided into groups (n=6) as vehicle control (0.7% CMC), ethanol control (18%v/v) @ 5gm/kg/day), OSWE (10,30 and 100mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (75mg/kg body weight) as a plant derived standard antioxidant, all of which received an identical volume (0.2ml/mice) of treatment and ethanol by oral rout of administration using oral feeding needle. Preventive effect of OSWE against the ethanol-induced oxidative stress in mice was followed as per the method described by (Molina et al., 2003). Experimental mice were pre-treated with OSWE and quercetin for 15 days prior the chronic administration of the ethanol. Administration of test compound was continued along with the ethanol. On 3rd week of ethanol administration, treatment of the test compound was stopped and administration of ethanol was continued for another 15 days. All animal experiments were performed according to the ethical guidelines suggested by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC) and Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals, Government of India.
Preparation of tissue homogenate
Twenty four hour after the last administration, all the animals were anaesthetized and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The brain was dissected out from cranial cavity and was immediately placed in a beaker containing ice-cold PBS (pH 7.4) which was minced into small pieces and homogenized immediately in polytron homogenizer (Pro Scientific Inc, Monroe,CT, USA) under the cold condition and kept it in -20°C till the further processing for the estimation of, malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity.
Estimation of lipid peroxidation
The quantitative measurement of lipid peroxidation was performed following the standard thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay. The amount of MDA formed was quantitated by reaction with TBA and used as an index of lipid peroxidation. The results were expressed as MDA (μM/g wet tissue).
Estimation of Nitric Oxide (NO) production
Nitric Oxide production was estimated as nitrite released from tissue homogenate. To measures the nitrite content, 100μl tissue homogenate was mixed with equal volume of griess reagent (Sigma Aldrich, USA) and incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes. The absorption at 540 nm was determined in a microplate reader. Nitric oxide estimation was carried out using standard curve plotted against the known quantity of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) .The results were expressed as mmol nitrite/ml tissue homogenate as per the method described by Freitas et al., 2005.
Estimation of super oxide dismutase (SOD) an antioxidant enzymes
SOD was estimated as per the method described by Madesh and Balasubramanian (1998). It involves generation of superoxide by pyrogallol autoxidation and the inhibition of superoxidedependent reduction of the tetrazolium dye MTT [3-(4-5 dimethyl thiazol 2-xl) 2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] to its formazan, measured at 570 nm. The reaction was terminated by the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which helps to solubilize the formazan formed. The colour evolved is stable for many hours and is expressed as SOD Units /mg of tissue homogenate.
| Results and Discussion|| |
Medicinal plants are recognized for their ability to produce a wealth of secondary metabolites and its used in disease treatment has been in practice from several generations. Our understanding of the scientific principles of these herbal drugs is still unsatisfactory, resulting in the limitation of their widespread use in patients. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on ethanolinduced oxidative stress on mice brain. Chronic exposure of ethanol caused significant alteration in oxidative stress-related indices in brain homogenate. Malonaldehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitrite, a marker of nitric oxide (NO) formation was significantly increased and superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant enzyme was significantly inhibited in ethanol treated group when compared with vehicle control group (P<0.05). Due to the presence of high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low oxidant defense enzymes in the brain, this organ is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and free radicals are generated under normal as well as pathological conditions (Gilman et al., 1993; Skaper et al., 1999). Ethanol metabolism leads to the production of highly reactive molecules such as indirect metabolites malondialdehyde, 4hydroxynonenal (Montoliu et al., 1995), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals generated during the metabolism of ethanol by the microsomal oxidising system that can destroy vital cell components through a process called oxidation which may be involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related tissue injury (Fernandez-Checha et al., 1996; Rouach et al., 1997). Chronic ethanol administration induces oxidative stress in the central nervous system, mainly through increased lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane leading to increased membrane fluidity, disturbances of calcium homeostasis (increase in free intracellular calcium) and finally cell death (Hansson et al., 1990; Montoliu et al., 1995). The inducible form of NOS (iNOS, type II) produces a much higher amount of NO and is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction in the human body. Diffusion of NO into pathogenic cells leads to inactivation of some enzymes and the formation of reactive oxygen species (Galea et al., 1992; Murphy et al., 1998).
LPO and NO level were significantly reduced (P<0.05) and SOD level was enhanced in OSWE treated groups in a dose dependent manner when compared with the ethanol control group. The respective data is depicted in [Figure 1],[Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Several previous reports have demonstrated that ocimum sanctum exhibiting antioxidant and neuroprotective effect on transient cerebral ischemia and long-term cerebral hypoperfusion (Yanpallewar, 2004) and nitric oxide scavenging activity (Jagetia and Baliga, 2004), cardiac endogenous antioxidants and prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in rats, inhibition of lipid peroxidation: in vivo and in vitro studies (Geetha and Vasudevan, 2004), radioprotective properties (Subramanian et al., 2005), peptic ulcer model (Kath and Gupta, 2006), would healing model (Shetty et al., 2006) on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress (Sood et al., 2006) the anti-oxidant activity in noise exposure model (Samson et al., 2007).
The result of the present study concluded that the Ocmium sanctum water extract could protect the brain damage due to the chronic consumption of ethanol so it can be used as prevention therapy in chronic ethanol consumption people to avoid the damage of the vital organs.
| Acknowledgment|| |
We are thankful to Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India for providing financial support to this work. 
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
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